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Figure 3. Metabolic activity of insulin glargine and its metabolites in rat adipocytes.

To compare the metabolic activity of glargine and its metabolites insulin-stimulated lipid synthesis in isolated primary rat adipocytes was analyzed by incorporation of [3- 3 H]glucose into toluene-extractable lipids and subsequent measurement of radioactivity by liquid scintillation counting. The adipocytes were treated with increasing concentrations of insulin, analogs, metabolites or IGF-1 for 90 min at 37°C in the presence of [3- 3 H]glucose. Each point represents the mean ± SEM of five different adipocyte preparations with activity measurements done in duplicate.

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The relative metabolic activities of human insulin > insulin glargine  =  glargine metabolites correlate well with their binding affinities and autophosphorylation of IR-A and IR-B. This is compatible with previous studies demonstrating that ligand affinity and activation (i.e. autophosphorylation) of the IR are the key events for initiation of downstream signaling to the metabolic effector systems of insulin and its analogs Saint LaurentBlaze 45 crystal embellished suede boots knZfGDOb
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The maintenance of binding, autophosphorylation and metabolic activities of insulin analogs with modified carboxy-terminus confirm the previous findings that amino acid modifications at the insulin B-chain beyond position B25, in particular the B26-B30 region, do not play a critical role in its recognition by both isoforms of the IR Haider Ackermann And Green Laser Cut 50 Leather Boots nsGzyNs2
, [42] and thus in metabolic signaling in insulin target cells [6] , [43] . The slightly lower binding, autophosphorylation and metabolic activities of M1 relative to those of human insulin are in agreement with the previous suggestion that the minor structural change caused by loss of the salt bridge between Asn A21 and Arg B22 leads to a (small) reduction in IR affinity [44] . In consequence, the slight reduction in metabolic activity of insulin glargine vs. human insulin derives predominantly from altered structural features at the carboxy-terminus of the B-chain and rather than from the amino acid substitution at A21.

Taken together, the present data clearly demonstrate that the major metabolites of insulin glargine detected in rats, dogs, and humans Diane von Furstenberg Womens Mollo Chelsea Bootie gSfKVgf
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are metabolically active. Since a ratio of 50∶50 for parent compound and M1/M2 was reported in tissue samples derived from the site of injection in humans [10] and in vitro metabolism of insulin glargine resulted into 46% to 98% appearance of M1 [11] , it is reasonable to assume that the metabolites of insulin glargine will contribute to the blood glucose lowering profile observed after administration of insulin glargine, dependent on the extent of their generation at the subcutaneous injection site and in plasma in the course of carboxypeptidase action [11] .

Insulin receptor autophosphorylation was studied using CHO cells overexpressing either IR-A or IR-B. For detection an immunocytochemical microplate assay (In-Cell Western) based on two-colour fluorescence was applied [31] . The observed EC 50 values for stimulation of autophosphorylation of the IR isoforms with human insulin, insulin glargine, its metabolites IM, M1 and M2 and IGF-1 and IGF-2 correlated well with their binding affinities to the corresponding receptors ( Giuseppe Zanotti Leather boot with zip and buckle KENDRA oa0d4lt
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). For human insulin, insulin glargine and its metabolites the EC 50 values were comparable for IR-A and IR-B with insulin glargine and its metabolites exhibiting a 30–50% decrease in activity towards both isoforms relative to human insulin. IGF-1 and more potently IGF-2 were capable in stimulating the autophosphorylation of IR-A. In contrast, stimulation of IR-B autophosphorylation was less pronounced with IGF-1 (EC 50 value >400 nmol/L) and IGF-2 (EC 50 value = 384±68 nmol/L). The most potent stimulant for both IR-A and IR-B autophosphorylation was [Asp B10 ]insulin with comparable EC 50 values, which did not reflect the differences observed in the IR isoform affinities [12] .

For determination of the metabolic activity primary rat adipocytes were used that possess a high insulin sensitivity and responsiveness. They reflect the physiological situation of insulin target cells with regard to signal transduction processes and regulation of glucose and lipid metabolism (e.g. glucose uptake and esterification into lipids) more closely than cultured muscle cells and adipocyte cell lines. mRNA expression of IR-B is significantly higher than that of IR-A in rat epididymal white adipose tissue from which primary adipocytes are derived Softwalk Napa Ballerina Flat TMG1U
. By using fully differentiated and maximally insulin-sensitive adipocytes from young rats, any difference in metabolic activity between human insulin, insulin glargine and glargine metabolites is due to differential interaction with the IR-B rather than the IR-A.

Assaying lipid synthesis with primary rat adipocytes for the measurement of metabolic activity is based on the incorporation of radiolabelled glucose into total lipids. This pathway is under the strict control of insulin at the low glucose concentrations used.

As expected on the basis of previously reported data on the stimulation of lipid synthesis in rat adipocytes [12] , [Asp B10 ]insulin and IGF-1 exerted the highest and lowest metabolic activities, respectively, among all proteins tested, with EC 50 value of 0.2-fold lower and 422-fold higher, respectively, relative to insulin. Furthermore, insulin glargine and M1 were reported to exhibit 60% and 88%, respectively, of the metabolic activity of human insulin [12] . These findings were confirmed in the present study as reflected in the considerable right-ward shifts of the concentration-response curves for insulin glargine and M1 vs . human insulin resulting in 1.4- and 3.0-fold higher EC 50 values, respectively ( Tab. 1 , Versace VITELLO Hightop trainers bianco/oro lgvUs2st
). The glargine metabolites M2 and IM, here investigated for biological activity for the first time, were also less active (1.2- and 1.4-fold) than insulin glargine but more active than M1 (0.6-fold lower EC 50 values). The maximal responses in stimulating lipid synthesis are the same for human insulin, insulin glargine and its metabolites M1, M2 and IM (15- to 20-fold above basal, depending on the batch of adipocytes used).

While it is certainly true that randomization is used for the purpose of ensuring comparability between or among comparison groups, … it is categorically not true that this goal is achieved.

Suppose the patients are perfect twins with the exception of a single difference. Then Greenland’s example shows that randomization cannot even balance a single nuisance factor. To remedy the defect, it is straightforward to increase n . However, no quantitative advice is given here or elsewhere. Thus it should be worthwhile studying a number of explicit and straightforward models, quantifying the effects of randomization. Moreover, quite early, statisticians—in particular of the Bayesian persuasion—put forward several rather diverse arguments against randomization [ 23 Vince Womens Karsen Leather Block Heel Slide Sandals 9EPYwKN5ZM
]. At this point, it is not necessary to delve into delicate philosophical matters or the rather violent Bayesian-Frequentist debate (however, see Section 5), since fairly elementary probabilistic arguments suffice to demonstrate that the above criticism hits its target: By its very nature a random mechanism provokes fluctuations in the composition of T and C , making these groups (rather often) non-comparable.

The subsequent reasoning has the advantage of being straightforward, mathematical, and not primarily “foundational”. Its flavour is Bayesian in the sense that we are comparing the actual groups produced by randomization which is the “posterior view” preferred by that school. At the same time its flavour is Frequentist, since we are focusing on the properties of a certain random procedure which is the “design view” preferred by this school. There are not just two, but (at least) three, competing statistical philosophies, and “in many ways the Bayesian and frequentist philosophies stand at opposite poles from each other, with Fisher’s ideas being somewhat of a compromise” [ Puma Breaker Suede Sneakers In 36607701 MqXtCiDrU
]. Since randomization is a Fisherian proposal, a neutral quantitative analysis of his approach seems to be appropriate, acceptable to all schools, and, in a sense, long overdue. To a certain degree, philosophy is a matter of opinion. However, it is difficult to argue with mathematical facts of actual performance (see [ 31 ], p. xxii).

The overall result of the following calculations is thus [ 32 ]:

Despite randomization, imbalance in prognostic factors as a result of chance (chance imbalance) may still arise, and with small to moderate sample sizes such imbalance may be substantial.

Suppose there is a nuisance factor X taking the value 1 if present and 0 if absent. One may think of X as a genetic aberration, a medical condition, a psychological disposition or a social habit. Assume that the factor occurs with probability p in a certain person (independent of anything else). Given this, 2 n persons are randomized into two groups of equal size by a chance mechanism independent of X .

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